Pufferfish is known a powerful toxin in its skin and organs called Tetrodotoxin. Validation of food authenticity is usually based on the analysis of proteins or DNA sequences. DNA based methods are more effective and can also be applied to different food matrices. DNA barcoding is a rapidly rising global initiative in which species are characterized using mtDNA sequence. This is based on the premise that species are generally well delineated by a species-specific sequence. In this study, we revealed DNA barcoding of three pufferfish species Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sphoeroides pachygaster and Torquigener flavimaculosus using the mtDNA cytochrome b gene region. There were 122 variable and 266 conservative nucleotides of which 110 were parsimony informative over 388 bp sequences. The mean nucleotides composition was found as %28.0 thymine (T), %30.7 cytosine (C), %24.8 adenine (A) and %16.6 guanine (G). Twelve haplotypes were found out of 18 sequences and mean haplotype diversity was observed at 0.9346. This study has strongly authenticated and traceability the efficacy of Cty b in identifying L. sceleratus, S. pachygaster and T. flavimaculosus species with designated barcodes. This is the recorded of L. sceleratus, S. pachygaster and T. flavimaculosus cytochrome b gene sequence from the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
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