mud flat
warfare ecology

How to Cite

Ali‎, M. H., Al-Mudaffar‎, N., Mohammed‎, H. H., Helmuth, B., & Dwyer, A. (2021). WINNERS AND LOSERS: POST CONFLICT BIODIVERSITY IN ‎THE STRESSED ECOSYSTEM OF KHOR AL-ZUBAIR, IRAQ. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences, 30(2), 76–95. Retrieved from


A rapid assessment of biodiversity in the immediate wake of civil conflict and other disasters is critical to inform recovery efforts. We report on the first surveys of aquatic biodiversity in Khor Al-Zubair (KAZ) in southern Iraq, following the cessation of recent violence in the region. This site is in the midst of ongoing environmental changes due to climate change and reductions in water flow from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which have led to increases in salinity in the KAZ. Monthly surveys of biodiversity were conducted in 2017-2018 and compared to historical data from the site obtained from a literature survey. Results indicate a loss of 80% of species richness, suggesting a fundamental and potential catastrophic decline in species diversity resulting from largely anthropogenic drivers.



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Copyright (c) 2022 Malik Hassan Ali‎, Nadia Al-Mudaffar‎, Hanaa Hussein Mohammed‎, Brian Helmuth, Amanda M. Dwyer