A Sawback angel shark (Squatina aculeata) classified as “Critically Endangered” Global Red List by the IUCN (2017) and CITES (2017) is one of the threated elasmobranch groups and the increased pollution in the marine environment negatively impact angel shark species. Despite this, limited information exists about the effects of toxic chemical contamination in angel sharks. Therefore, present study was conducted to elucidate heavy metal accumulation in Squatina aculeata captured from the Iskenderun Bay, North-Eastern Mediterranean by electrochemical technique. Arsenic (As), Mercury (Hg), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn) and Mangan (Mn) were found by electrochemical analyzer. Among the gill and liver tissue samples of S. aculeata, Fe and Zn were detected as highest concentrations followed by As, Hg, Mn and Cu; Among the muscle tissue of S. aculeata, Fe and Zn were detected as highest followed by Hg, As, Mn and Cu. Average total arsenic contents in S. aculeata was 7.5416±0.6548 μg g-1, which exceeded maximum limit legalized for any kind of food. Similarly, Total mercury average content in S. aculeata was 19.9942±1.6116 μg g -1, which exceeded the proposed limit value which is 0.2-2 μg g-1, confirming that the consumption of S. aculeata is a high risk threating the health of consumer. These results confirmed that the metal contamination in North-Eastern Mediterranean area may pose a potential threat to the sustainability of S. aculeata in marine ecosystem and the concentrations detected is the above the safety limits for angel shark that should be taken into consideration regarding human consumption.
Adel, M., C. Copat, M.R.S. Asl, G.O. Conti, M. Babazadeh and M. Ferrante, 2018. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in banded Persian bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium arabicum) from the Persian Gulf: A food safety issue. Food. Chem. Toxicol. 113: 198-203. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.01.027)
Andral, B., J.Y. Stanisiere, D. Sauzade, E. Damier, H. Thebault, F. Galgani and P. Boissery, 2004. Monitoring chemical contamination levels in the Mediterranean based on the use of mussel caging. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 49(9-10): 704-712. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.05.008)
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemist), 2002. Official Method 999.10. Lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and iron in foods - atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave digestion. Washington, DC.
Arulkumar, A., S. Paramasivam and R. Rajaram, 2017. Toxic heavy metals in commercially important food fishes collected from Palk Bay, Southeastern India. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 119(1): 454-459. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul. 2017.03.045)
Bansod, B., T. Kumar, R. Thakur, S. Rana and I. Singh, 2017. A review on various electrochemical techniques for heavy metal ions detection with different sensing platforms. Biosens. Bioelectron. 94: 443-455. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2017. 03.031Get rights and content)
Başusta, N., 2002. Occurrence of a sawback angelshark (Squatina aculeata Cuvier, 1829) off the Eastern Mediterranean Coast of Turkey. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 26: 1177-1179.
CITES, 2017. The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 April 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Accessed 05/11/2017.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. Rome: FAO, FAO Fisheries Synopsis. 4(125) part 2: 1-249.
DOH, 2004. Foodstuffs, cosmetics and disinfectants act of 1972, No. 54. Regulations relating to maximum levels for metals in foodstuffs.
Ellis, J.R., J. Barker, S.R.M. Phillips, E.K. Meyers and M. Heupel, 2020. Angel sharks (Squatinidae) A review of biological knowledge and exploitation. J. Fish. Bio. 98(3): 592-621. (https://doi.org 10.1111/jfb.14613)
Ergenler, A., F. Turan and C. Turan, 2020. Occurrence of a sawback angelshark (Squatina aculeata Cuvier, 1829) from the Iskenderun Bay, north-eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Biharean Biol. 14(1): 57-59.
Ergüden, D. and K.Y. Bayhan, 2015. Three fish species known to be rare for Turkey, captured from the Northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, Mersin Bay, Sudis hyalina Rafinesque, Chlopsis bicolor Rafinesque, Squatina aculeata Cuvier. Int.J. Sci. Tech. Res. 1(4): 1-8.
Escobar-Sánchez, O., J. Ruelas-Inzunza, X.G. Moreno-Sánchez A.K. Romo-Piñera and M.G. FríasEspericueta, 2016. Mercury concentrations in Pacific angel sharks (Squatina californica) and prey fishes from southern Gulf of California, Mexico. B. Environ. Contam. Tox. 96: 15‒19. (https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s00128-015-1708-0)
FAO, 2003. Heavy metals regulations. Legal Notice No 66/2003. 2003.
Filiz, H., E. Irmak and S. Mater, 2005. Occurrence of Squatina aculeata Cuvier, 1829 (Elasmobranchii, Squatinidae) from the Aegean Sea, Turkey, Ege University, JFAS. 22: 451-452.
Gassel, M., S. Klasing and R.K. Brodberg, 2004. Guidelines for Consumption Of Fish And Shellfish From Tomales Bay (Marin County), Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Section Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment California Environmental Protection Agency,Oakland, California, USA.
Greig, R.A., D. Wenzloff and C. Shelpuk, 1975. Mercury concentrations in fish, North Atlantic offshore waters - 1971. Pest. Monitoring J. 9: 15-20.
Kim, S.W., S.J. Han, Y. Kim, J.W. Jun, S.S. Giri and C . Chi, J. Kwon, 2019. Heavy metal accumulation in and food safety of shark meat from Jeju island, Republic of Korea. PloS one. 14, e0212410. (https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212410)
Lopez, S.A., N.L. Abarca and R.C. Meléndez, 2013. Heavy metal concentrations of two highly migratory sharks (Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus) in the southeastern Pacific waters:comments on public health and conservation. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6:126-137. (https://doi.org/10.1177/194008291300600103)
Lozano-Bilbao, E., G. Lozano, Á.J. Gutiérrez, C. Rubio and A. Hardisson, 2018. Mercury, cadmium, and lead content in demersal sharks from the Macaronesian islands. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21251-21256. (https://doi.org 10.1007/ s11356-018-2550-9)
Maciel, O.L.D.C., I.Q. Willmer, T.D. Saint’Pierre, W. Machado, S. Siciliano and R.A. Hauser-Davis, 2021. Arsenic contamination in widely consumed Caribbean sharpnose sharks in southeastern Brazil: Baseline data and concerns regarding fisheries resources. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 172, Article 112905. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.marpolbul.2021.112905)
Martins, M.F., P.G. Costa, O.B. Gadig and A. Bianchini, 2020. Metal contamination in threatened elasmobranchs from an impacted urban coast. Sci. Tot. Environ.143803. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143803)
Morris, R.J., R.J. Law, C.R .Allchin, C.A. Kelly and C.F. Fileman, 1989 Metals and organochlorines in dolphins and porpoises of Cardigan Bay, West Wales. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 20: 512–523. (https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(89)90140-9)
Pethybridge H., D. Cossa and E.C. Butler, 2010. Mercury in 16 demersal sharks from Southeast Australia: biotic and abiotic sources of variation and consumer health implications. Mar. Environ. Res. 69(1): 18-26. (https://doi.org 0.1016/j.marenvres. 2009.07.006)
Polat, A., S. Polat, A. Simsek, T.T. Kurt and G. Ozyurt, 2018. Pesticide residues in muscles of some marine fish species and seaweeds of Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean), Turkey. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 25: 3756-3764. (https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s11356-017-0756-x)
Pujol, L., D. Evrard, K. Groenen-Serrano, M. Freyssinier, A. Ruffien-Cizsak and P. Gros, 2014. Electrochemical sensors and devices for heavy metals assay in water the French groups contribution. Front. Chem. 2:19. (https://doi.org/10.3389/ fchem.2014.00019)
Qi, X., J. Qian, T. Chen, D. Lu and B. Chen, 2017 .Electrochemical determination of Cu (II) ions based on Ag/Pd alloy for water quality early warning
Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.12:5511-5520. (https://doi.org/10.20964/2017.06.49)
SCF, 2006. Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies. Tolerable upper intake levels for vitamins and minerals. EFSA.
Serena, F., 2005. Field Identification Guide to the Sharks and Rays of the Mediterranean and Black Sea. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes., Rome, pp. 97.
Storelli, M.M., G. Cuttone and G.O. Marcotrigiano, 2011. Distribution of trace elements in the tissues of smooth hound Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the southern-eastern waters of Mediterranean Sea (Italy). Environ.Monitoring Asses. 174: 271-281.
Storelli, M.M., R. Giacominelli-Stuffler and G.O. Marcotrigiano, 2002. Mercury accumulation and speciation in muscle tissue of different species of sharks from Mediterranean Sea, Italy. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 68(2): 201-210. (https:// doi.org/110.1007/s001280239)
Turan, F., M. Eken, G. Ozyilmaz, S. Karanand H. Uluca 2020. Heavy metal bioaccumulation, oxidative stress and genotoxicity in African catfish Clarias gariepinus from Orontes river. Ecotoxicol. 29: 1522-1537. (https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10646-020-02253-w)
UNEP, 2008. Guidance for Identifying Populations at Risk from Mercury Exposure. UNEP DTIE Chemical Branch and WHO Department of Food Safety, Zoonoses and Foodborne Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland.
Yola, M.L., N. Atar, M.S. Qureshi, Z. Ustündağ and A.O. Solak, 2012. Electrochemically grafted etodolac film on glassy carbon for Pb (II) determination. Sensors and Actuators B, Chem. 171: 1207-1215. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2012.06.082)
Zar, J.H., 1996.Biostatistical analysis, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2022 Funda Turan, Mehmet Lütfi Yola, Aysegul Ergenler, Cemal Turan