Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences 2024-06-30T19:42:46+00:00 Dr Qadeer Muhammad Ali Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>The Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences (Print ISSN 1019-8415, Online ISSN 2710-4583, CODEN PJMSE8) a bi-annual journal is an official publication of The Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre, University of Karachi.</p> <p>PJMS is dedicated to publish original research papers in the broad field of Ocean Sciences. All the major aspects of marine science are covered in PJMS including zoology, botany, geology, chemistry, physiology, systematic, ecology, physical oceanography and fisheries. The journal is abstracted and indexed by ASFA, BIOSIS, PASTIC, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents, Oceanic Abstracts and Zoological Records.</p> COMPARISON OF BIODEGRADABLE FILMS DERIVED FROM CARRAGEENAN EXTRACTED FROM RED SEAWEEDS ALONG THE KARACHI COASTLINE 2024-06-30T06:06:23+00:00 Faiza Iftikhar Asma Tabassum R. Aliya <p>This study aimed to assess and compare the properties of biodegradable films produced from carrageenan extracted from two indigenous seaweed species<em>, Hypnea pannosa</em> and <em>Halymenia porphyraeformis</em>, sourced from the Manora area of Karachi. Glycerol was employed as a plasticizer to enhance the tensile strength and elasticity of the biofilms. Results revealed a significant disparity in weight loss between <em>Hypnea pannosa</em> (40%) and <em>Halymenia porphyraeformis</em> (28%) during the soil burial test, while varying solubility rates were observed in different mediums. Moreover, <em>Halymeniaporphyraeformis</em> exhibited higher tensile strength and elongation at break compared to <em>Hypnea pannosa</em>, indicating its superior gelling power and elasticity.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Faiza Iftikhar, Asma Tabassum, R. Aliya AQUACULTURE NURSERY SYSTEMS AFTER INFECTION WITH VIBRIO HARVEYI 2024-06-30T06:52:30+00:00 Nwe Nwe Soe Hlaing Punhal Khan Lashari Hameeda Kalhoro Thida Khaing Kaythi Nyint Phyo Sandi Dilawar Ali Muhammad Younis Laghari Faiz Muhammad Ghulam Dastagir Khalid Hussain <p>Present study evaluated the survival, post-larvae quality, and the population of <em>Penaeus monodon</em> (Black tiger shrimp) and <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> (Tilapia), after the addition of two strains of bacteria <em>i.e Lactobacillus </em>sp. and <em>Bacillus </em>sp. The <em>Vibrio harveyi</em> were isolated and identified from hatchery-reared larvae, at Biotechnology Research Department Ministry of Education, Republic of Union of Myanmar. Preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity of six <em>Lactobacillus </em>sp. and six <em>Bacillus </em>sp. Incubated and tested with <em>V. harveyi</em> using agar, well diffusion assay and tube screening methods. Inhibition activity results were the best at 3 days incubation for <em>Lactobacillus </em>sp. and the optimal result for inhibition activity for <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> at 5 days, with lactose sugar on <em>V. harveyi</em>. Before in vivo test, <em>in vitro</em> inhibition test of <em>V. harveyi</em> competition with probiotic of different concentrations of 10 ml/ton, 20 ml/ton, 30 ml/ton and 40 ml/ton. The results in all probiotic treatments were almost similar. Inhibitory affects were found in tube screening method, where, <em>V. harveyi</em> level reduced to 10 <sup>3</sup> CFU/ml from 10 <sup>7</sup> CFU/mlin 4 days. The pathogenicity test was conducted for a period of 2 days with <em>Penaeus monodon</em> (Black tiger shrimp) at post larval stages and <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> (Tilapia) at fingerling stages, where they were exposed for 10<sup>6</sup>, 10<sup>7</sup> and 10<sup>8</sup> CFU/ml of <em>V. harveyi</em> resulted 100% mortality. The probiotic treatment exhibited 50%, 70% and 80% survival rate of the fish infected with 10<sup>6</sup>, 10<sup>7</sup> and 10<sup>8</sup> CFU/ml, respectively. It was detected the lower load of <em>Vibrio</em> ssp. bacteria with potential of pathogenicity after feeding with six <em>Lactobacillus </em>sp. and six <em>Bacillus </em>sp.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nwe Nwe Soe Hlaing, Punhal Khan Lashari, Hameeda Kalhoro, Thida Khaing, Kaythi Nyint, Phyo Sandi, Dilawar Ali, Muhammad Younis Laghari, Faiz Muhammad, Ghulam Dastagir, Khalid Hussain DIVERSITY AND STATUS OF FLATFISH FISHERY AT BALOCHISTAN COAST, PAKISTAN 2024-06-30T07:15:56+00:00 Asadullah Ali Muhammad Sumera Farooq Wajid Ali <p>Flatfishes are one of the most diverse fishes of the order Pleuronectiformes and are found worldwide and constitute a large proportion of the ground fish catch. The flatfishes are commercially important species of Pakistan having high value and sold locally at higher prices as well as exported in large quantities. The present study aimed to examine the current status of flatfish fishery and their diversity in the coastal waters of Balochistan, Pakistan. These fishes were caught and landed in large quantities at different harbors of Balochistan coast. 3 species in Family Cynoglossidae, 3 species of family Paralichthyidae and 3 species from family Soleidae were recorded. The <em>Cynoglossus arel </em>and<em> S. elongata</em> were the most abundant species and collectively accounts for 82 % abundance in the total flatfish landings. Sur bandar and Pasni are the main fishing grounds for flatfish fishery at Balochistan coast. The highest catch was reported at Sur bandar in 2018 with 2227.99 and 14496.416 in 2019 and the lowest catch reported in Gaddani in 2019 with only 6.55 metric tons. The high demand and increasing catch of these fishes requires a management approach.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Asadullah Ali Muhammad, Sumera Farooq, Wajid Ali THE POSITION AND IMPORTANCE OF SINOP IN THE BLACK SEA FISHERIES 2024-06-30T07:46:58+00:00 Levent Bat Elif Arıcı Uğur Özsandıkçı <p>Located in the northernmost part of Türkiye and situated on the Boztepe Peninsula, Sinop has a surface area of 5.791 km<sup>2</sup>. Sinop is one of the smallest provinces of Türkiye and covers approximately 0.8 percent of Türkiye's surface area. Sinop Province is one of the regions with the highest fish outflow in the southern Black Sea coast of Türkiye where the most intensive fishing is carried out. There are many fish meal-oil factories, aquaculture processing and utilisation facilities and cold storages in Sinop due to intensive fishing and production. Due to the potential of Sinop's fisheries, the biggest export income is also provided from here. There are also dam lakes with large water surface area in Sinop Province. An intensive amount of aquaculture is carried out from these dam lakes. In addition, Sinop coasts are seen as the most suitable conditions in the Black Sea Region as a new and strong alternative attraction centre for aquaculture facilities. Especially after 2018, serious aquaculture activities are carried out on the east coast of Sinop and there are many project applications for new potential areas on the west coast of Sinop. Anchovy, Atlantic bonito, horse mackerel, whiting, bluefish, flathead grey mullet, red mullet, shad, garfish, and turbot are among the most fished economic species on the coasts of Sinop. In the inland waters of Sinop, the most caught fish species are carp and pike. The only species produced in the inland waters of Sinop is rainbow trout. The production of trout as trade name Turkish Salmon started in 2018 on the coasts of Sinop and continues and peaked in 2022 with 17,332,975 kg. Exported to 48 countries, Turkish Salmon was 45,548,737 kg in January-November 2022 and this rate increased to 57,211,587 kg with a 26% change in January-November 2023. Sea bass was only farmed in cages on the coasts of Sinop in 2019 and 2020. Except for 2021, veined Rapa whelk have been caught from the coasts of Sinop for the last 10 years. Veined Rapa whelk meat is exported to USA, Korea, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore. Operculum of veined Rapa whelk is exported to S. Arabia and Libya countries. Sand mussel from the Sinop coasts was caught only in 2022. With the newly planned marine aquaculture capacities on the coasts of Sinop, its contribution to Turkish aquaculture production continues to increase. This table shows that Sinop is one of the leading provinces of Türkiye in terms of aquaculture processing facilities.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Levent Bat, Elif Arıcı, Uğur Özsandıkçı FOOD AND FEEDING HABITS OF POMADASYS KAAKAN (CUVIER, 1830) (FAMILY: HAEMULIDAE) FROM KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN-NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA 2024-06-30T19:42:46+00:00 Saba Jawed Farzana Yousuf Quratulan Ahmed Ateeqa Baloch <p>This study focused on the feeding habits of <em>P. kaakan</em>, collected from Karachi fish harbor during January to December 2022. A total of (N=119) specimens were analyzed for gut content to understand their diet composition and monthly variations. The primary diet components identified were crustaceans, molluscs, fish, and miscellaneous items. The fullness index (FI) and coefficient of variance (CV%) also varied monthly, with the highest (FI) in July (50.0%) and the lowest in April (25.0%), while the (CV%) peaked in April (75.0%) and lowest in July (50.0%). Frequency of occurrence (FO%) of food items were highest in February, August, and September and lowest in March, April, and May. This research is pioneering in its comprehensive analysis of the <em>P. kaakan</em> diet composition from the Pakistani coastal waters those providing crucial insights into their feeding ecology. These findings offer valuable data for the effective management and conservation of this commercially important species, highlighting the importance of understanding their dietary habits for fisheries development and ecological sustainability.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Saba Jawed, Farzana Yousuf, Quratulan Ahmed, Ateeqa Baloch