lethal concentration
effective concentrations

How to Cite

Bat, L., Hasançavuşoğlu, Z., & Öztekin, A. (2023). A REVIEW OF AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY INVESTIGATIONS IN TURKISH WATERS. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences, 32(1), 01–61. Retrieved from https://pakjmsuok.com/index.php/pjms/article/view/132


Aquatic toxicity studies have been conducted for many years, and their importance has been understood for some time. The need for aquatic toxicity studies arises from the widespread use of chemicals in many different industries, such as agriculture, manufacturing, and energy production. These chemicals can enter aquatic environments through various means, including runoff from fields, discharges from factories, and spills or leaks from storage tanks or pipelines. Once in the aquatic environment, these chemicals can have harmful effects on aquatic life, including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and algae. By conducting aquatic toxicity studies, researchers can gain a better understanding of the potential harmful effects of chemicals on aquatic life and ecosystems and can inform decisions about their use and regulation to protect the environment. This review summarizes the available aquatic toxicity studies in Turkish waters.



Aksakal, F.I. and A. Ciltas, 2019. Impact of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) exposure on embryo development and expression of genes related to the innate immune system of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 223: 78-87. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.05.016).

Alak, G., M. Atamanalp, A. Uçar, H. Arslan, T. Şensurat, V. Parlak and M. Kocaman, 2012. Investigation of humic acid effects versus cadmium toxicity on hematological paramaters of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta fario). Ege J. Fisher. Aquat. Sci. 29(4): 181-185. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.12714/ egejfas.2013.29.4.06).

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990. Standard guide for conducting 10-day static sediment toxicity tests with marine and estuarine amphipods. ASTM E 1367-90. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 1-24.

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1991. Standard guide for collecting, storage, characterization and manipulation of sediments for toxicological testing. ASTM E 1391-90. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 1105-1119.

Arslan, M., S. Karaytuğ and B. Cicik, 2006. Effects of copper on tissue glycogen and sera glucose levels of Clarias lazera (Valenciennes, 1840). E.U. J. Fisher. Aquat. Sci. 23(1/1): 23-27. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Arslan, P., 2022. Determinations of the effects of cyfluthrin on the hemocytes parameters of freshwater mussel (Unio delicatus). Ege J. Fisher. Aquat. Sci. 39(1): 39-45. (https://doi.org/ 10.12714/egejfas.39.1.06).

Aslantürk. A. and O. Çetinkaya, 2014. Acute Toxicity of Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859). Eğirdir Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi. 10(1): 12-19. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/ 10.22392/egirdir.246377).

Atamanalp, M. and M. Cengiz, 2002. The effects of sublethal doses of a synthetic pyrethroid (cypermethrine) on haemoglobin, haematocrit and sediment of Capoeta capoeta capoeta (Güldenstaedt, 1772). Ege Üniv. Su Ürünleri Derg. 19(1-2): 169-175. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Ates, M., V. Demir, R. Adiguzel and Z. Arslan, 2013. Bioaccumulation, subacute toxicity, and tissue distribution of engineered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in goldfish (Carassius auratus). J. Nanomater. 2013. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/ 2013/460518).

Ates, M., V. Demir, Z. Arslan, H. Kaya, S. Yılmaz and M. Camas, 2016. Chronic exposure of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to iron oxide nanoparticles: Effects of particle morphology on accumulation, elimination, hematology and immune responses. Aquat. Toxicol. 177: 22-32. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox. 2016.05.005).

Atli, G. and M. Canli, 2010. Alterations in ion levels of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus following acute and chronic exposures to five heavy metals. Turk. J. Zool. 35(5): 725-736. (https://doi.org/10.3906/zoo-1001-31).

Atli, G., 2018. The effect of waterborne mercury and nickel on the ATPases and AChE activities in the brain of freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus) depending on the Ca2+ concentrations. Turk. J. Fisher. Aquat. Sci. 19(5): 363-371. (http://doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v19_5_01).

Ay, Ö., C. Korkmaz and M.H. Ak, 2014. Determination of 96 h LC50 Value of Copper and Its Total Body Accumulation during the Same Period in Unio terminalis. Eğirdir Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi. 10(2): 29-34. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.22392/egirdir.246361).

Aytan Ü., F.B. Esensoy, Y. Şentürk and A. Öztekin, 2022. Microplastic Ingestion by Zooplankton and It is Effect on Feeding Behaviour in The Black Sea. V. Ulusal Deniz Bilimleri Konferansı/ V. National Marine Science Congress (Oral Presentation).

Baki, O.G., B. Baki and L. Bat, 2015. Toxic effects of different long term zinc concentrations on the accumulation in muscles, visceral organ and gills of juveniles of Solea solea L., 1758. Fresen. Envıron. Bullet. 24(9): 2809-2814.

Bakırel, T., O. Keleş, S. Karataş, M. Özcan, G. Türkmen and A. Candan, 2005. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on non-specific defence mechanisms in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquat. Toxicol. 71(2): 175-181. (https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2004.11.001).

Balusamy, B., B.E. Taştan, S.F. Ergen, T. Uyar and T. Tekinay, 2015. Toxicity of lanthanum oxide (La2O3) nanoparticles in aquatic environments. Environ. Sci.: Process. Impact. 17(7): 1265-1270. (https://doi.org/10.1039/c5em00035a).

Bat, L. and G. Kurt, 2020. Use of Polychaeta species as bioindicator for heavy metal pollution in marine environments. (In): Bayram T, Zayachuk Y, Gupta DK. (Eds.) Environmental Radioactivity in Turkish Environment. Sivas Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Matbaası, ISBN 978-605-7902-40-5, pp. 259-281.

Bat, L. and M. Akbulut, 2001. Studies on sediment toxicity bioassays using Chironomus thummi K., 1911 Larvae. Turk. J. Zool. 25: 87-93.

Bat, L., 2005. A review of sediment toxicity bioassays using the amphipods and polychaetes. Turk. J. Fisher. Aquat. Sci. 5: 119-139.

Bat, L., A. Gündoğdu and M. Öztürk, 1998-1999b. Ağır metaller. (Heavy metals). S.D.Ü. Eğirdir Su Ürünleri Fak. Der, 6: 166-175. (in Turkish).

Bat, L., A. Gündoğdu, M. Akbulut, M. Çulha and H.H. Satılmış, 2001a. Toxicity of zinc and lead to the Polychaete (Hediste diversicolor Müller 1776). Bat, L., M. Çulha, M. Akbulut, A. Gündoğdu and M. Sezgin, 1998. Toxicity of zinc and copper to the Hermit Crab Diogenes pugilator (Roux). Turk. J. Mar. Sci. 7: 71-84.

Bat, L., A. Gündogdu, M. Sezgin, M. Çulha, G. Gönlügür and M. Akbulut, 1999a. Acute toxicity of zinc, copper and lead to three species of marine organisms from the Sinop Peninsula, Black Sea. Turk. J. Biol. 23: 537-544.

Bat, L., A. Öztekin, F. Şahin, E. Arıcı, U. Özsandıkçı, 2018. An overview of the Black Sea pollution in Turkey. MedFAR. 1(2): 67-86.

Bat, L., F. Şahin and A. Öztekin, 2018. Acute toxicity of heavy metals to Hyale Crassıpes (Heller, 1866) ın the Black Sea. Pak. J. Mar. Sci. 27(2): 01-07.

Bat, L., F. Şahin and A. Öztekin, 2019. Acute toxicity of cadmium on Ophelia bicornis Savigny, 1822. Acta Aquat. Turci. 15(3): 289-297. (https://doi.org/10.22392/ actaquatr.509974).

Bat, L., F. Üstün, O.G. Baki and F. Şahin, 2013. Effects of some heavy metals on the sizes of the Mediterranean Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819. Fresen. Environ. Bull. 22: 1933-1938.

Bat, L., M. Akbulut, M. Çulha, A. Gündoğdu and H.H. Satılmış, 2000. Effect of temperature on the toxicity of zinc, copper and lead to the freshwater Amphipod Gammarus pulex pulex (L., 1758). Turk. J. Zool. 24: 409-415.

Bat, L., M. Çulha, M. Akbulut, A. Gündoğdu and M. Sezgin, 1998. Toxicity of zinc and copper to the Hermit Crab Diogenes pugilator (Roux). Turk. J. Mar. Sci. 4: 39-48.

Bat, L., M. Öztürk and M. Öztürk, 1998-1999a. Akuatik toksikoloji. (Aquatic toxicology). S.D.Ü. Eğirdir Su Ürünleri Fak. Der, 6: 148-165. (in Turkish)

Bat, L., M. Sezgin, A. Gündogdu and M. Çulha, 1999b. Toxicity of zinc, copper and lead to Idotea baltica (Crustacea, Isopoda). Turk. J. Biol. 23: 465-472.

Bat, L., S. Bilgin and A. Öztekin, 2017. Toxicity of cadmium on larvae of Palaemon adspersus Rathke, 1837 from the Black Sea. J. Coast. Life Medic. 5(9): 375-378. (https://doi.org/10.12980/jclm.5.2017J7-118).

Bat, L., S. Bilgin, A. Gündoğdu, M. Akbulut and M. Çulha, 2001b. Individual and combined effects of copper and lead on the Marine Shrimp, Palaemon adspersus Rathke, 1837 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae). Turk. J. Mar. Sci. 7: 103-117.

Bayram, Y., M. Yılmaz, Y. Ersan, E. Koç and A. Baysal, 2010. Toxic effects of Cobalt (II) chloride on tissue histopathology and serum proteins in Capoeta capoeta capoeta (Guldenstaedt 1772). Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg. 16(Suppl-B): S259-S263.

Belek, N., B. Erkmen, A.S. Dinçel and A.C. Gunal, 2022. Does persistent organic pollutant PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate) negative impacts on the aquatic invertebrate organism, Astacus leptodactylus [Eschscholtz, 1823]. Ecotoxicol. 31(8): 1217-1230. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-022-02579-7).

Benli, A.C.K., 2005. Investigation of acute toxicity of cyfluthrin on tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus L. 1758). Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 20(2): 279-282. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2005.01.009).

Bereketoğlu, C., 2021. Investigation The Toxic Effects of Propylparaben on Daphnia magna and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Int. J. Adv. Eng. Pure Sci. 33(1): 143-149 (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.7240/jeps. 824250).

Bezirci, G., S.B. Akkas, K. Rinke, F. Yildirim, Z. Kalaylioglu, F. Severcan and M. Beklioglu, 2012. Impacts of salinity and fish-exuded kairomone on the survival and macromolecular profile of Daphnia pulex. Ecotoxicol. 21(2): 601-614. (https:// doi.org/10.1007/s10646-011-0820-0).

Boran, H. and S. Şaffak, 2020. Transcriptome alterations and genotoxic influences in zebrafish larvae after exposure to dissolved aluminum and aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Toxicol. Mechanis. Method. 30(7): 546-554. (https://doi.org/10.1080/ 15376516.2020.1786759).

Boran, H. and S. Şaffak, 2018. Comparison of dissolved nickel and nickel nanoparticles toxicity in larval zebrafish in terms of gene expression and DNA damage. Arch. Environ. Contaminat. Toxicol. 74(1): 193-202. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0468-8).

Bozcaarmutlu, A., 2007. Mechanism of inhibition of purified leaping mullet (liza saliens) NADPH‐cytochrome P450 reductase by toxic metals: Aluminum and thallium. J. Biochem. Molecul. Toxicol. 21(6): 340-347. (https://doi.org/10:1002/jbt.20200).

Bulut, C., O. Çetinkaya and A. Kubilay, 2014. Bakırın (Cu+2) Weight and Acute Ammonia Toxicity Relationship in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) Fry and Fingerlings. Yunus Araştırma Bülteni,1: 31-39. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Bulut, C., O. Çetinkaya, A. Kubilay, U. Akçimen and M. Ceylan, 2013. Acute Toxicity of Zinc (Cu+2) on Sand Smelt (Atherina boyeri, Risso, 1810) Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi. 17(3): 32-38. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Burton, G.A. Jr. and K.J. Scott, 1992. Sediment toxicity evaluations their niche in ecological assessments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26(11): 2069-2075.

Burton, G.A. Jr., 1991. Assessing the toxicity of freshwater sediments: annual review. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 10: 1585-1627.

Büyüksoylu, S., M.E. Özgür, C.C. Gül, A. Taşlıdere, S. Aydemir and S. Erdoğan, 2022. An investigation of histopathological changes and bioaccumulation in tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure to dodine. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 45(2): 537-547. (https://doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2020.1730884).

Cairns, J. Jr. and D.I. Mount, 1990. Aquatic toxicology: Part 2 of a four-part series. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24: 154-161.

Çapkın, E., 2011. Effects of carbosulfan on erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J. Fisher. Sci. 5(3):, 240-249. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Capkin, E., E. Terzi, H. Boran, I. Yandi and I. Altinok, 2010. Effects of some pesticides on the vital organs of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Tissue Cell. 42(6): 376-382. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2010.10.001).

Çavaş, T. and S. Ergene-Gözükara, 2005. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in Oreochromis niloticus following exposure to petroleum refinery and chromium processing plant effluents. Aquat. Toxicol. 74(3): 264-271. (https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2005.06.001).

Çavaş, T., 2011. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of atrazine and atrazine-based herbicide on fish Carassius auratus using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. Food Chem. Toxicol. 49(6): 1431-1435. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.03.038).

Cavas, T., N.N. Garanko and V.V. Arkhipchuk, 2005. Induction of micronuclei and binuclei in blood, gill and liver cells of fishes subchronically exposed to cadmium chloride and copper sulphate. Food Chem. Toxicol. 43(4): 569-574. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.fct.2004.12.014).

Cicik, B., 2003. The Effects of Copper-Zinc Interaction on the Accumulation of Metals in Liver, Gill and Muscle Tissues of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Ekoloji Çevre Dergisi. 48(12): 32-36. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Cicik, B., Ö. Ay and F. Karayakar, 2004. Effects of lead and cadmium interactions on the metal accumulation in tissue and organs of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. 72(1): 141-148.

Çiftci, N. and B. Cicik, 2011. Accumulation of Chromium (VI) in Tissues of Oreochromis niloticus, Cyprinus carpio, Clarias gariepinus, Callinectes sapidus and Its Effect on Protein and Glycogen Levels. SDÜ Eğirdir Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi. 2(7): 37-55. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Çiftçi, N., B. Cicik, C. Erdem and Ö. Ay, 2008. Effects of lead concentrations on sera parameters and hematocrit levels in Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758). J. Fisher. Sci. 2(4): 616-622.

Çiftçi, N., C. Günalp and B. Cicik, 2010. Effects of chromıum on the hematocrıt levels and erythrocyte numbers of Cyprinus carpio. e-J. New World Sci. Acad. 5(2): 5A0027.

Çoǧun, H.Y. and F. Kargın, 2004. Effects of pH on the mortality and accumulation of copper in tissues of Oreochromis niloticus. Chemosph. 55(2): 277-282. (https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.10.007).

Coğun, H.Y. and F. Kargın, 2013. The Effect of Copper and Lead on Oreochromis niloticus and Cyprinus carpio in Blood Ion Level. Ekoloji Dergisi. 22(87). (in Turkish with English abstract).

Çoǧun, H.Y. and F. Kargın, 2019. The Effect of Lead on Ion Levels of Oreochromis niloticus Gill Tissue Anadolu Çevre ve Hayvancılık Bilimleri Dergisi. 4(1): 22‐26. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.527071).

Çoǧun, H.Y. and F. Kargın, 2020. Copper Accumulation and Na/K Ion Levels in Gill Tissue of Cyprinus carpio. J. Anatol. Environ. Anim. Sci. 5(3): 313-317. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.749347).

Çoğun, H.Y. and F. Kargın, 2021. The Effects of Copper on Ion Levels and Accumulation in Muscle Tissues of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758). J. Anatol. Environ. Anim. Sci. 6(2): 174-179. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.872376).

Çoğun, H.Y. and M. Şahin, 2012. The Effect of Zeolite on Reduction of Lead Toxicity in Nil Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758). Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 18(1): 135-140. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Çoğun, H.Y. and U. Gönül, 2012. The protective effect of calcium on aluminum toxicity in Oreochromis niloticus tissues. Ege J. Fisher. Aquat. Sci. 29(1): 41-47. (https:// doi.org/ 10.12714/egejfas.2012.29.1.07).

Coğun, H.Y., Ö. Fırat, Ö. Fırat, T.A. Yüzereroǧlu, , G. Gök, F. Kargin and Y. Kötemen, 2012. Protective effect of selenium against mercury‐induced toxicity on hematological and biochemical parameters of Oreochromis niloticus. J. Biochem. Molecul. Toxicol. 26(3): 117-122. (https://doi.org/10.1002/jbt.20417).

Coğun, H.Y., T.A. Yüzereroğlu and F. Kargın, 2003. Accumulation of copper and cadmium in small and large nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. 71(6): 1265-1271. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-003-8523-8).

Demirci, Ö., 2018. The Evaluation of Acute Toxic Effect of Imidacloprid and Acetamiprid on Gammarus kischineffensis (Amphipoda: Crustacea). Iğdır Üni. Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi. 8(3): 85-92. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.21597/jist.458583).

DeWitt, T.H., R.C. Swartz and J.O. Lamberson, 1989. Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments. Environ. Toxicol. and Chem., 8: 1035-1048.

Dogan, D., and C. Can, 2011. Hematological, biochemical, and behavioral responses of Oncorhynchus mykiss to dimethoate. Fish. Physiol. Biochem. 37(4): 951-958. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-011-9492-1).

Dogan, M., S.D. Saygideger and U. Colak, 2009. Effect of lead toxicity on aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis Michx. Bull. Environ. Contaminat. Toxicol. 83(2): 249-254. (https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s00128-009-9733-5).

Dumlu, A.B. and U. Güner, 2020. Acute and some chronıc effects of nıckel ın Gambusia holbrooki. Fresen. Environ. Bull. 29(09): 7342-7348.

Dural, M., Y. Tepe and M. Türkmen, 2005. Lethal chrome concentrations for the blackfish Clarias gariepinus (Boulenger, 1902) (in Turkish: Karabalık. Clarias gariepinus (Boulenger, 1902) için öldürücü krom konsantrasyonları). Türk Sucul Yaşam Dergisi. 3(4): 314-316.

Ekmekyapar, F., C. Tosun and I. Ataçoğlu, 2014. Investigation of Chlorpyrifos Toxicity Using Daphnia magna and Environmental Risk Assessment. Niğde Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi. 1(3): 1-8. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.28948/ngumuh.239372).

Environment Canada, & Canada. Environmental Protection Directorate, 1992. Biological test method: acute test for sediment toxicity using marine or estuarine amphipods. Canadian Government Publishing.

Environment Canada, & Environmental Technology Centre (Canada). Method Development and Application Section, 2005. Guidance document on statistical methods for environmental toxicity tests. Environment Canada.

Environment Canada, 1997. Biological test method: Test for survival and growth in sediment using larvae of freshwater midges (Chironomus tentans or Chironomus riparius). Report EPS 1/RM/32.

Er, A. and Ş. Kayış, 2022. Acute toxicity of pozzolanic cement on two crustacean species, water flea Daphnia magna and Gammarus komareki. Bull. Environ. Contaminat. Toxicol. 108(2): 309-314. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03345-x).

Ergen, Ş.F., 2017. Acute Toxic Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle and Zinc Chloride on Daphnia magna (Straus). Trak. Univ. J. Nat. Sci. 18(2): 149-153. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.23902/trkjnat.332691).

Ergönül, M.B. and A. Altındağ, 2011. Determination of the Acute Toxicity of Zinc and Copper on Tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758). Kahramanm. Sutc. Imam Univ. J. Nat. Sci. 14(3): 19-24. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Ertürk, M.D. and M.T. Saçan, 2012. First toxicity data of chlorophenols on marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta: correlation of marine algal toxicity with hydrophobicity and interspecies toxicity relationships. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 31(5): 1113-1120. (https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.1782).

Fakhereddin, T. and D. Doğan, 2021. Pro-oxidant potency of clothianidin in rainbow trout. Archiv. Indust. Hygien. Toxicol. 72(2): 164-172. (https://doi.org/10.2478/aiht-2021-72-3522).

Falco, J.W. and R.V. Moraski, 1989. Assessment of Ecologic Risks Related to Chemical Exposure: Methods and Strategies Used in the United States. In Risk Management of Chemicals in the Environment. Springer, Boston, MA. pp. 61-73.

Finney, D.J., 1971. Probit analysis.3. edition. Cambridge University Press London.

Fırat, Ö. and F. Kargın, 2010a. Biochemical alterations induced by Zn and Cd individually or in combination in the serum of Oreochromis niloticus. Fish. Physiol. Biochem. 36: 647-653. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-009-9337-3).

Fırat, Ö. and F. Kargın, 2010b. Response of Cyprinus carpio to copper exposure: alterations in reduced glutathione, catalase and protein selectrophoretic patterns. Fish. Physiol. Biochem. 36: 1021-1028. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-010-9380-0)

Fırat, Ö. and F. Kargın, 2010c. Protein ıntensity changes in the hemoglobin and plasma electrophoretic patterns of Oreochromis niloticus in response to single and combined Zn and Cd exposure. J. Bıochem. Molecul. Toxıcol. 24(6): 395-401. (https://doi.org/ 10.1002/jbt.20352).

Fırat, Ö. and F. Kargın, 2010d. Individual and combined effects of heavy metals on serum biochemistry of nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 58: 151-157. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-009-9344-5).

Fırat, Ö. and F. Kargın, 2010e. Effects of zinc and cadmium on erythrocyteantioxidant systems of a freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus. J. Bıochem. Molecul. Toxıcol. 24(4): 223-229. (https://doi.org/10.1002/jbt.20327).

Firat, Ö. And F. Kargın, 2016. Cıvanın etkisine bırakılan Oreochromis Niloticus’ta cıvanın, dokularda birikimi. Ç. Ü. Fen ve Mühendis. Biliml. Dergis. 34(1): 39-44. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Fırat, Ö. And Ş.A. İnandı, 2016. Biochemical Toxicity of Mercury and Protective Effect of Zeolite on This Toxicity in Oreochromis niloticus. Turk. J. Aquat. Scı. 31(2): 86‐95. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.18864/ TJAS201610).

Fırat, Ö., H. Çoğun, T. Yüzereroğlu, G. Gök, Ö. Fırat, F. Kargın and Y. Kötemen, 2011. A comparative study on the effects of a pesticide (cypermethrin) and two metals (copper, lead) to serum biochemistry of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish. Physiol. Biochem. 37: 657-666. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-011-9466-3).

Fırat, Ö., H.Y. Cogun, S. Aslanyavrusu and F. Kargın, 2008. Antioxidant responses and metal accumulation in tissues of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus under Zn, Cd and Zn+ Cd exposures. J. Appl. Toxicol. 29(4): 295-301.

Fırat, Ö., R. Erol and Ö. Fırat, 2021. An Investigation on freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758), Assessing hemotoxic effects of different copper compounds used as nanomaterial or pesticide. Bull. Environ. Contaminat. Toxicol. 108(3): 549-554. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03320-6).

Forbes, V.E. and T.L. Forbes, 1994. Ecotoxicology in theory and practice. First edition. Chapman and Hall, London.

Gül, A., M. Yılmaz and M. Selvi, 2004. The study of the toxıc effects of mercury-ıı-chlorıde to chub Leuciscus cephalus (L., 1758). G.Ü. Fen Bilimleri Dergisi. 17(4): 53-58.

Gündoğdu, A., Ö. Yardım, L. Bat and S.T. Çulha, 2009. Accumulation of zinc in liver and muscle tissues of Rainbow Trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss, Walbaum 1792). Fresen. Environ. Bull. 18: 40-44.

Güner, U. and F.D.G. Muranlı, 2011. Micronucleus test, nuclear abnormalities and accumulation of Cu and Cd on Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853). Turk. J. Fisher. Aquat. Sci. 11: 615-622.

Güner, U., 2008. Effects of Copper and Cadmium Interaction on Total Protein Levels in Liver of Carassius carassius. J. Fisher. Sci. com. 2(1): 54-65. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Güner, U., 2009. Determination of Lambda Cyhalotrın (Tekvando 5ec) 96 hour lethal concentration LC50 at Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853). J. Fisher. Sci. com. 3(3): 214-219.

Güner, U., 2010. Cadmium bioaccumulation and depuration by freshwater Crayfish, Astac. leptodactyl. Ekoloj. 19(77): 23-28.

Güven, K., C. Özbay, E. Ünlü and A. Satar, 1999. Acute lethal toxicity and accumulation of copper in Gammarus pulex (L.) (Amphipoda). Turk. J. of Biol. 23: 513-521 © TÜBİTAK.

Ingersoll, C.G., 1995. Sediment tests. In: G.M. Rand (Ed.), Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology. Second edition. Effects, environmental fate, and risk assessment. Taylor and Francis Publ., pp. 231-255.

Johnson, W.W. and M.T. Finley, 1980. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates: Summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78 (Vol. 137). US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife service.

Jovanović, B., K. Gökdağ, O. Güven, Y. Emre, E.M. Whitley and A.E. Kideys, 2018. Virgin microplastics are not causing imminent harm to fish after dietary exposure. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 130 : 123-131. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.03.016).

Kalay, M. and C. Erdem, 2003. Effect of Cadmium Accumulation on Total Protein Levels in Tilapia nilotica. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 27(6): 1367-1374. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Kalay, M. and M. Canlı, 2000. Elimination of essential (Cu, Zn) and non-essential (Cd, Pb) metals from tissues of a freshwater fish Tilapia zilli . Turk. J. Zool. 24: 429-436.

Kalay, M., A.E. Dönmez and E.C. Koyuncu, 2003. The Effects of Copper on the Levels of Manganese, Iron and Zinc in Gill andLiver Tissues of Tilapia nilotica (L., 1758). Ekoloji Çevre Dergisi. 13(49): 1-5 (in Turkish with English abstract).

Karakoç, M. and F. Kargın, 1999. Accumulation of metal and metal mixture in the spleen, brain and muscle tissues of Tilapia nilotica. Turk. J. Zool. 23(supp2): 719-724. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Karakoç, M., 1999. Effects of salinity on the accumulation of copper in liver, gill and muscle tissues of Tilapia nilotica. Tr. J. Zool. 23: 299-303.

Karasu Benli, A.Ç. and Z. Gülen, 2009. The Alteration of Hematocrit and Plasma Glucose Level as Secondary Stress Indicators in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) After Exposure to Fenitrothion. YYÜ. Tar. Bil. Derg., 19(1): 19-22. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Karasu Benli, A.Ç., B. Erkmen and F. Erkoç, 2016. Genotoxicity of sub-lethal di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju. 67(1): 25-30. (https://doi.org/ 10.1515/aiht-2016-67-2723).

Karataş, S. and K. Murat, 2002. Accumulation of Lead in the Gill, Liver, Kidney and Brain Tissues of Tilapia zilli. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 26: 471-477. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Karataş, S., 2005. Effect of cadmium on levels of sera aspertate aminotransferase alanine aminotransferase and glucose in Cyprinus carpio (L.1758). Ekol. 14(55): 18-23. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Karayakar, F., A. Yavuz and B. Cicik, 2021a. The effects of EDTA on lead accumulation in tissues of Clarias gariepinus. Mar. Sci. Technol. Bull. 10(1): 28-35. (https:// doi.org/10.33714/masteb.774416).

Karayakar, F., F. Seçen and B. Cicik, 2021b. The effects of EDTA on zinc accumulation in tissues of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus 1758). NESciences, 6(1), 30- 38. https://doi.org/10.28978/nesciences.868065

Karaytug, S., Y. Sevgiler and F. Karayakar, 2011. Comparison of the protective effects of antioxidant compounds in the liver and kidney of Cd‐and Cr‐exposed common carp. Environ. Toxicol. 29(2): 129-137. (https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20779).

Kargın, F. and H.Y. Çoğun, 1999. Metal Interactions during accumulation and elimination of zinc and cadmium in tissues of the freshwater fish Tilapia nilotica. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 63: 511-519.

Katalay, S. and P. Hatice, 2004. The effects of cadmium on erythrocyte structure of black goby (Gobius niger L., 1758). C E.Ü. Su Ürünl. Dergis. 21(1-2): 99-102. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Kaya, H. and M. Akbulut, 2012. Kurşuna maruz bırakılan tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) ’nın eritrosit morfolojisinde görülen değişimler. Alınter. 22(B): 10-15. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Kaya, H., M. Duysak, M. Akbulut, S. Yılmaz, M. Gürkan, Z. Arslan and M. Ateş, 2017. Effects of subchronic exposure to zinc nanoparticles on tissue accumulation, serum biochemistry, and histopathological changes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Environ. Toxicol. 32(4): 1213-1225. (https://doi.org/ 10.1002/tox.22318).

Kayhan, F., H. Esmer Duruel, Ş. Kızılkaya, S. Dinç, G. Kaymak, C. Akbulut and N. Yön Ertuğ, 2020. Toxic effects of herbicide tribenuron-methyl on liver tissue of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fresen. Environ. Bull. 29(12A): 11175-11179.

Kobaza, K., V. Parlak and M. Atamanalp, 2021. Lead II Acetat Residue Level of Freshwater Mussle (Unio crassus) Sampled from Aras River (Erzurum) by Empirical Model Atatürk Univ. Ziraat Fak. Derg. 52(3): 344-350. (in Turkish with English abstract). (doi: 10.17097/ataunizfd.903170).

Köprücü, K. and E. Seker, 2008. Acute toxicity of deltamethrin for freshwater mussel, Unio elongatulus eucirrus bourguignat. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80(1): 1-4. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-007-9254-z).

Kulaç, B. and M. Canlı, 2012. Determination of Na, K-ATPase Activity and Ion Levels in the Tissues of Freshwater Fish Oreochromis niloticus Following Exposure to Salinity and Cadmium. Ç.Ü Fen Ve Mühendis. Biliml. Dergis. 27(5): 56-62. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Kulaç, B., G. Atlı and M. Canlı, 2012. Investigations on the ATPase activities and cadmium uptake in freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus following exposures to cadmium in increased salinity. Turk. J. Fisher. Aquat. Sci. 12: 861-869.

Kutlu, M., A. İşcan and M. Tanatmış, 2008. Structural changes of Artemia parthenogenetica (Bowen and Sterling, 1978) (Branchiopoda-Anostraca) exposed to lead acetate. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46(12): 3770-3773. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.fct.2008.09.060).

Leblebici, Z., A. Aksoy and F. Duman, 2011. Influence of salinity on the growth and heavy metal accumulation capacity of Spirodela polyrrhiza (Lemnaceae). Turk. J. Biol. 35: 215-220. (https://doi.org/10.3906/biy-0906-13).

Luoma, S.N. and K.T. Ho, 1993. Appropriate uses of marine and estuarine sediment bioassays. In: P. Calow (Ed.), Handbook of ecotoxicology. Oxford Blackwell Sci. Publ., London. Vol. 1, Ch. 11. pp. 193-226.

Marking, L.L., 1985. Toxicity of chemical mixtures. In: G.M. Rand and S.R. Petrocelli (Eds.), Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology methods and applications. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, pp. 164-176.

McLeay, D.J. and J.B. Sprague, 1990. Biological test method: Reference method for determining acute lethality of effluents to Daphnia magna (No. 1). Environment Canada.

Nane, İ.D., Ö. Özil, M. Minaz, M. Nazıroğlu, Ö. Diler and Ö. Özmen, 2021. Toxic Effects of Bisphenol S on the Gonad and Visceral Organs of Goldfish (Carassius auratus). Acta Aquat. Turc. 17(1): 129-135. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.22392/actaquatr.767061).

Niță, V., M. Nenciu and V. Coatu, 2022. Suitability and Sensitivity of Golden Grey Mullet Chelon auratus (Risso, 1810) as a Reference Fish Species for Ecotoxicity Tests in the Black Sea. Toxic. 10(5): 222. (https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10050222).

Official Gazette of the Republic of Türkiye, 1988. Water Pollution Control Regulation. September 4, 1988, (Issue: 19919): 13-73.

Önen, Ö., Ö Gündüz and S.İ. Üçüncü, 2011. The Effects of water soluble fractions of crude oil on the intestine and liver of Pelvicachromis pulcher (Boulenger, 1901) (Cichlidae, Teleostei). Kafk. Üniversit. Vet. Fakül. Dergis. 17: 105-110.

Otludil, B. and S. Ayaz, 2020. Effect of copper sulphate (CuSO4) on freshwater snail, Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805: A histopathological evaluation. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 104(6): 738-747. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02846-5).

Özen, R.M. and F. Pak, 2020. Metal accumulation in some tissues of Meagre (Argyrosomus regius) exposed to copper and cadmium. Ege J. Fisher. Aquat. Sci. 37(2): 201-206. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas. 37.2.12).

Özgür, M.E., İ. Bayır and Ö. Albayrak, 2011. Formaldehyde acute toxicity on Rainbow Trout frys. Biyol. Biliml. Araşt. Dergis. 4(1): 71-75.

Özkan, Y., I. Altinok, H. Ilhan and M. Sokmen, 2016. Determination of TiO2 and AgTiO2 nanoparticles in Artemia salina: Toxicity, morphological changes, uptake and depuration. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 96(1): 36-42. (https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s00128-015-1634-1).

Parlak, H., S. Katalay and B. Büyükişik, 1999. Accumulation and loss of chromium by mussels (M. galloprovincialis). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 62: 286-292.

Phipps, G.L. and G.W. Holcombe, 1985. A method for aquatic multiple species toxicant testing: acute toxicity of 10 chemicals to 5 vertebrates and 2 invertebrates. Environ. Pollut. Ser. A, Ecol. Biol. 38(2): 141-157.

Polat, F. and T. Dal, 2013. Investigating the effect of aspirin on mercury toxicity. Hind. Publ. Corporat. J. Ecosyst., 737059: 1-6. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/737059).

Porcella, D.B., 1983. Protocol for bioassessment of hazardous waste sites. US Environmental Protection Agency.

Rand, G.M., P.G. Wells and L.S. McCarty, 1995. Introduction to aquatic toxicology. In: G.M. Rand (Ed.), Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology. Second edition. Effects, environmental fate, and risk assessment. Taylor and Francis Publ. pp. 3-67.

Rasgele, P.G., G. Meredova and Ş.G. Kırankaya, 2022. Investigation of genotoxic effects of ımazamox herbicide on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) using micronucleus assay. Düzce Ünivers. Bil. ve Teknol. Dergis. 10(4) : 1664-1669. (https://doi.org/10.29130/ dubited.1050245).

Rassoulzadegan, M. and N. Akyurtlaklı, 2002. An Investigation on the toxic effects of malathion (Organophosphate Insecticide) on the Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 (Crustacea, Cladocera). Turk. J. Zool. 26: 349-355.

Saçan, M.T., F. Oztay and S. Bolkent, 2007. Exposure of Dunaliella tertiolecta to lead and aluminum: toxicity and effects on ultrastructure. Biol. Tr. Elem. Res. 120(1): 264-272. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-007-8016-4).

Saçan, T.M. and I.A. Balcıoğlu, 2001. Bioaccumulation of aluminium in Dunaliella tertiolecta in natural seawater: Aluminium metal (Cu, Pb, Se) ınteractions and ınfluence of pH. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 66: 214-221. (https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s0012800227).

Saçan, T.M. and N. Özkovalak, 2007. Interaction between a synthetic dye bath and selenium in their toxicity to Dunaliella tertiolecta under two light ıntensities. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 78: 142-146. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-007- 9012-2).

Sağlamtimur, B., B. Cücük and C. Erdem, 2003. Effects of different concentrations of copper alone and a copper + cadmium mixture on the accumulation of copper in the gill, liver, kidney and muscle tissues of Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 27: 813-820.

Sağlamtimur, B., B. Cücük and C. Erdem, 2004. Cadmium Accumulation in liver, kidney, gill and muscle tissues of freshwater bream (Oreochromis niloticus L. 1758) after a short-term exposure to copper-cadmium mixture. Çevre Koruma, Ekol. 53: 33-38.

Sarikaya, R. and M. Selvi, 2005. Investigation of acute toxicity of (2, 4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2, 4-D) herbicide on larvae and adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 20(2): 264-268. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.etap.2005.01.006).

Sarikaya, R., M. Selvi, O. Koçak and F. Erkoç, 2007. Investigation of acute toxicity of fenitrothion on guppies Poecilia reticulata. J. Appl. Toxicol.: An Int. J. 27(4): 318-321. (https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.1193).

Sarιkaya, R., A. Sepici Dinçel, A. C. Karasu Benli, M. Selvi and F. Erkoç, 2011. The acute toxicity of fenitrothion on narrow‐clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823) in association with biomarkers of lipid peroxidation. J. biochem. Molecul. Toxicol. 25(3): 169-174. (https://doi.org/10:1002/jbt.20373).

Scroggins, R.P., 1999. Guidance Document on Application and Interpretation of Single-species Tests in Environmental Toxicology. EPS, 1.

Selvi, M., T. Çavaş, A.Ç. Karasu Benli, B.K. Memmi, N. Çinkılıç, A.S. Dinçel, Ö. Vatan, D. Yılmaz, R. Sarıkaya, T. Zorlu and F. Erkoç, 2011. Sublethal toxicity of esbiothrin relationship with total antioxidant status and in vivo genotoxicity assessment in fish (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) using the micronucleus test and comet assay. Environ. Toxicol. 28(11): 644-651. (https://doi.org/ 10.1002/tox.20760).

Serdar, O., N. Yıldırım, N., Ş. Tatar and C.N. Yıldırım, 2021. Biochemical Effects of Gadolinium on a Freshwater Invertebrate Dreissena polymorpha. Int. J. Pure Appl. Sci. 7(2): 229-236. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.29132/ ijpas.873218 229).

Serdar, O., R. Aydın and M. Çalta, 2019. The evaluation in different temperature of acute toxic effect of cadmium on Gammarus pulex (Freshwater Amphipoda). Anatol. Env. Anim. Sci. 4(3): 366-370. (https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.591384).

Series Environmental Protection, 1990a. Guidance Document on Control of Toxicity Test Precision Using Reference Toxicants. Report EPS, 1.

Series Environmental Protection, 1990b. Biological test method: acute lethality test using rainbow trout. Facilities, 2(2).

Series Environmental Protection, 2007. Biological Test Method: Growth Inhibition Test Using a Freshwater Alga.

Sevgiler, Y., S. Karaytuğ and F. Karayakar, 2011. Antioxidative effects of n-acetylcysteine, lipoic acid, taurine, and curcumin in the muscle of Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to cadmium. Arch. Indust. Hygien. Toxicol. 62: 1-9. (https://doi.org/ 10.2478/10004-1254-62-2011-2082).

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1976. Part 800. Bioassay methods for aquatic organisms. 14th ed., Amer. Publ. Health Ass., Amer. Wat. Works Ass., Wat. Pollut., Fed., Washington DC. pp. 683-872.

Stephan, C.E., 1975. Methods for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians.[Chemical effluents, mercury, and pesticides] (No. EPA-660/3-75-009). National Water Quality Lab., Duluth, Minn. (USA).

Swartz, R.C., D.W. Schults, G.R. Ditsworth, W.A. DeBen and F.A. Cole, 1985b. Sediment toxicity, contamination and macrobenthic communities near a large sewage outfall. In: T.P. Boyle (Ed.), Validation and Predictability of Laboratory Methods for Assessing the Fate and Effects of Contaminants in Aquatic Ecosystems, ASTM STP 865. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia. pp. 152-175.

Swartz, R.C., W.A. DeBen and F.A. Cole, 1979. A bioassay for the toxicity of sediment to marine macrobenthos. J. Wat. Pollut. Cont. Fed. 51(5): 944-950.

Swartz, R.C., W.A. DeBen, J.K.P. Jones, J.O. Lamberson and F.A. Cole, 1985a. Phoxocephalid amphipod bioassay for marine sediment toxicity. In: R.D. Cardwell, R. Purdy and R.C. Bahner (Eds.), Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment: Seventh Symposium, ASTM STP 854, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 284-307.

Swartz, R.C., W.A. Deben, K.A. Sercu and J.O. Lamberson, 1982. Sediment toxicity and the distribution of amphipods in Commencement Bay, Washington, USA. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 13: 359-364.

Talas, Z.S., I. Orun, İ. Özdemir, K. Erdoğan, A. Alkan and İ. Yılmaz, 2008. Antioxidative role of selenium against the toxic effect of heavy metals (Cd+2, Cr+3) on liver of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum 1792). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 34: 217-222. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-007-9179-9).

Taştan, B.E., T. Tekinay, H.S. Celik, C. Özdemir and D.N. Cakir, 2017. Toxicity assessment of pesticide triclosan by aquatic organisms and degradation studies. Regulat. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 91: 208-215. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.yrtph.2017.10.030).

Toğulga, M., 1998. The short-term toxicity of two toxicants to Artemia Nauplii. Turk. J. Zool. 22: 259-266.

Truhaut, R., 1977. Ecotoxicology: objectives, principles and perspectives. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safe. 1(2): 151-173. (https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-6513(77)90033-1).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1991. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal. Testing manual. EPA-503/8-91/001, Washington, DC.

Uçar, A., G. Alak, A. Topal, H. Arslan, V. Parlak, T. Şensurat and M. Atamanalp, 2012. Investigation of preservative effect of humic acid versus cadmium toxicity on electrolyte of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta fario). Tar. Biliml. Araşt. Dergis. 5(2): 139-143.

Ucar, A., V. Parlak, F.B. Ozgeris, A.C. Yeltekin, M.E. Arslan, G. Alak, H. Turkez, E.M. Kocaman and M. Atamanalp, 2022. Magnetic nanoparticles-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in brain of rainbow trout: Mitigation by ulexite through modulation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities. Sci.Tot. Environ. 838: 155718. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155718).

Üçüncü, E., E. Tunca, Ş. Fikirdeşici, A.D. Özkan and A. Altındağ, 2013. Phytoremediation of Cu, Cr and Pb mixtures by Lemna minor. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 91(5): 600-604. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-013-1107-3).

Unal, İ., S. Egri and M. Ates, 2022. Green Synthesis (Paeonia kesrouanensis) of silver nanoparticles and toxicity studies in Artemia salina. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 109(6): 1150-1154. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-022-03601-8).

Uruç, K., D.D. Yılmaz and H. Akbulut, 2008. Effect of different pH on nickel absorbtion and amount of chlorophyll of Lemna gibba L. and Lemna minor L. Biyol. Biliml. Araşt. Dergis. 1(2): 13-15.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1982. Chemical Fate Test Guidelines.

Ustaoğlu, D., K. Terzioğlu, E.Ü, Tunca, H. Türe, E. Yilmaz and E. Tunca, 2021. Modeling the combined toxic effects of high doses of Cd and Cu on Lemna minor. UMÜFED Uluslar. Batı Karad. Mühendis. ve Fen Biliml. Dergis. 3(2): 18-32. (in Turkish: Yüksek dozlarda Cd ve Cu'nun Lemna minor üzerindeki kombine toksik etkilerinin modellenmesi).

Verep, B., T. Mutlu, T. Yüksek and A.A. Gürdal, 2018. The Heavy Metal Accumulation (Mercury: Hg) In The Sea Trout (Salmo coruhensis) Tissues In The Hard and Soft Water Medium. Anad. Çev. ve Hayvan. Biliml. Dergis. 3(1): 19-26. (in Turkish with English abstract). (https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.387681).

Walker, C.H., S.P. Hopkin, R.M. Sibly and D.B. Peakall, 1996. Principles of ecotoxicology. Taylor & Francis Ltd. 321 pp.

Yildirim, M.Z., A.Ç.K. Benlı, M. Selvi, A. Özkul, F. Erkoç and O. Koçak, 2006. Acute toxicity, behavioral changes, and histopathological effects of deltamethrin on tissues (gills, liver, brain, spleen, kidney, muscle, skin) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings. Environ. Toxicol.: An Int. J., 21(6): 614-620. (https:// doi.org/10.1002/tox.20225).

Yildiz, H.Y. and A.Ç.K. Benli, 2004. Nitrite toxicity to crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus, the effects of sublethal nitrite exposure on hemolymph nitrite, total hemocyte counts, and hemolymph glucose. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safe. 59(3): 370-375. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2003.07.007).

Yildiz, H.Y. and S. Altunay, 2011. Physiological stress and innate immune response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Fish. Physiol. Biochem. 37: 401-409. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-010-9440-5).

Yılmaz, A.B., T. Toker, S. Sayın and G. Doğanay, 2006. The Effects of Selenium on Growth of Spirulina platensis (Cyanophyta). Mustafa Kemal Üniv. Su Ürünl. Fakül. 2-3. (in Turkish with English abstract).

Yılmaz, M., A. Gül and E. Karaköse, 2004b. Investigation of acute toxicity and the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O) metal salt on behavior of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Chemosph. 56: 375-380. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere. 2003.11.067).

Yılmaz, M., A. Gül and K. Erbaşlı, 2004a. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859). Chemosph. 56(2004): 381-385. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.02.034).

Yılmaz, M., Y. Ersan, E. Koç, H. Özen and M. Karaman, 2011. Toxic effects of cadmium sulphate on tissue histopathology and serum protein expression in European Chub, Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758). Kafk. Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg. 17(Suppl A): S131-S135.

Yorulmazlar, E. and A. Gül, 2003. Investigation of acute toxicity of cadmium sulfate (CdSO4.H2O) and behavioral changes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus Val., 1844). Chemosph. 53: 1005-1010. (https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03) 00577-0).

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Levent Bat, Zeynep Hasançavuşoğlu, Ayşah Öztekin